Professional advice for entrepreneurs and business managers in the context of Europe's recovery from the financial crises. Marketing notes, stories and videos.

Ebbinghaus Illusion: controlling the perceived value

The Ebbinghaus Illusion is frequently used in TV and printed media advertising. DFS, a UK furniture store, was told by the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) to withdraw their advertisement from TV broadcast because of the false impression it gave … [Continue reading]

Pricing – Insufficient Adjustment Anchoring


This article concerns the underlying psychological factors business managers should consider when thinking about effective pricing. The definition of price this article will be working with is the following: Price of something is the total cost of … [Continue reading]

How concerned are you about your reputation online?

Dignatio Interviews

We asked Londoners how concerned are they about what is being said about them online and how does this affect their good name?  The interviews took place in London in May 2012 as a part of the consumer research project for the Online Reputation … [Continue reading]

Influences – how other people make decisions for you

External Influence

External influences are the key factors that influence people’s behaviour. The control of those factors, predominantly in the process of consumer decision making, is crucial for the achievement of any possible commercial objectives. The marketers can … [Continue reading]

Classical Conditioning Examples – what can customers learn from you?


One has learned something if, as a result of an experience or more information being made known to them, their behaviour changes. Learning is a process of behavioural changes that occur over time relative to an external stimulus condition. The … [Continue reading]

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs for Marketing

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs does not require long introduction. It is in my opinion one of the most important marketing concepts ever invented. In this article I update Maslow’s theory slightly to make it more relevant realities of modern European. … [Continue reading]



Motive is a reason for carrying out a particular behaviour. Motives are not instincts (pre-programmed, inborn responses). Needs are the basis of all motivation. Motives can be subdivided into 6 motivational categories: Primary motives – … [Continue reading]

Perception in Marketing


Perception – is the process of converting sensory input into understanding of how the world works. The sensory input occurs through the senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.  process of perception Stimuli → Sensory Receptors → … [Continue reading]

Marketing Research Process

Marketing Research

The process of research for marketing (hereafter called marketing research) usually consists of five underlying parts which are: Problem Definition Research Plan Data Collection Data Analysis Report Presentation There are many kinds of … [Continue reading]

About this website

This website is intended to be a platform for the exchange of practical business information as well as a place for discussion about issues in strategic business management. The articles and other materials on the site are aimed at entrepreneurs and … [Continue reading]

About Michael Pawlicki

Michael Pawlicki

Michael Pawlicki is an experienced online marketing manager and alumnus of Imperial College London with proven success in starting up business ventures to his name. Michael has a special interest in seeing how the latest analytic methods can be … [Continue reading]